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(Last updated 1/27/17)
[1/27/17] Note to students sitting for the June 2017 or later exam: The 11th and earlier editions of this manual are no longer suitable for these exams. A 12th edition that covers the new syllabus was published in January 2017.
[10/29/14] Note on changes in Learning Objectives and Text References:
Changes were made in the Learning Objectives and Text References for the October 2013 and December 2014 exams. The following terms were eliminated from the syllabus: (1) investment year allocation methods; (2) effective duration; (3) convertible bonds and mandatorily convertible bonds; (4) paylater strategies. Also, the term current value was added to the Learning Objectives. The effects of these changes on ASMs FM/2 manual are shown below under the items dated 10/29/14. ((There are also a couple of corrections of typos dated 10/29/14 which are unrelated to the above changes.)
[11/20/12] Page 22, Q. 5. Answer choice (B) should be 1414.
[11/20/12] Page 29. The Note at the end should refer to (1 + i)2n.
[11/20/12] Page 41, solution to Q. 6. Note that there is actually no need to explicitly calculate i/2. From
1000(1 + i/2)28 = 1,980, we have (1 + i/2)10 = 1.9810/28, X = 1000(1 + i/2)10 = 1000(1.9810/28) =
1,276.
[3/25/12] Page 60, solution to Q. 1. Add the following note after the solution: Some students interpret:
His account is credited with interest at a nominal rate of i convertible semiannually to mean that
Bruces account earns interest only at the end of each 6-month period. Therefore, they reason
that after 7.25 years, Bruce has only 100(1 + i/2)14 in his account. However, it is very important
to note that in Exam FM/2, an account is always assumed to grow with interest continuously, no
matter how the interest rate is stated (e.g., as an annual effective rate, as a nominal rate
compounded m-thly, as a force of interest, etc.). If there is an exception to this assumption, it
should be clearly stated in the question.
[11/20/12] Page 68, last line. The correct expression for k is 2(1 1.25-1/6). The answer .0730 is based on
this expression.
[11/20/12] Page 69, last paragraph, 3rd sentence. The parenthesis should refer to Example 1 rather than
the above example.
[10/29/14] Page 75, solution to Q. 8. Add the following note at the beginning of the solution:
Note: Occasionally, you may see the term current value, as in this question. This simply means
the value of a series of payments on a specified date, some of which are made before that date
and some after that date. Thus, current value is the sum of the AV and PV of the payments on
the specified date.
[11/20/12] Page 78, Example 2, answer choice (A). Replace the closing parenthesis by a closing bracket.
[5/21/13] Page 92, diagram in the middle of the page. 3% applies to a period of of a year. (The arrows
make it appear as if 3% applies to of a period, which is of a year.)
[6/25/12] Page 105, solution to Q. 16, 2nd line. 100v should be 100v. The solution uses the correct value.
[6/25/12] Page 125, solution to Q. 5, first value. This should be 14,113, not 14,133. The solution uses
the correct value.
[1/21/12] Page 134, solution to Example 1, 2nd line. 795.70 is missing from the right-hand side of the
equation.
[10/29/14] Page 268, 3rd paragraph under the caption Yield Rate or Internal Rate of Return (IRR), 4th
sentence. Should be the present value of the returns of 500 and 800 decrease.
[3/25/12] Page 288, last line. This line should read as follows:
X = 100(1.1) + (20)[1 + (7/12)(0.1)] (10)[1 + (2/12)(0.1)] = 121
[10/29/14] Page 298. Investment year allocation methods are no longer included in the syllabus. Read
only the first 6 paragraphs of Section 5f and ignore the rest of this section (including the
questions at the end of the section).
[1/21/12] Page 356, Example 3. The problem and the solution are inconsistent. Change the first sentence
of the solution to say by making semiannual interest payments to the lender at a nominal rate of
interest of 10% compounded semiannually. Change the second sentence to say: The sinking
fund earns a nominal rate of interest of 6% per annum compounded monthly.
[1/21/12] Page 410, solution to Q. 9, last line. 1,088.27 should be 1,099.84.
[6/25/12] Page 436, solution to Q. 2, 1st line. The reference should be to Section 8(b), not Section 7(g).
[5/21/14] Pages 445-449. Since the 11th edition of this manual was published, the FM/2 exam committee
has adopted standard terminology for forward rates for exam purposes. (As noted on page 448
under Trap Alert! Warning on Terminology for Forward Rates!, the various Suggested
Textbooks use many different ways of describing the same forward rate. Thus, its a good move
on the part of the exam committee to finally specify standard terminology.)
This is how a forward rate is defined in Notation and terminology used for Exam FM/2
(available on HYPERLINK "http://www.BeAnActuary.org" www.BeAnActuary.org):
Forward rate: An m-year spot rate that comes into effect t years in the future will be
referred to as the m-year forward rate, deferred t years or as the m-year forward
rate, starting in t years.
Lets take an example. Suppose we are told that the 3-year forward rate, deferred 2 years, is
6% (or that the 3-year forward rate, starting in 2 years, is 6%). What this means is that we
could make an investment 2 years from now that would earn 6% per annum over the next 3
years (i.e., over the period from time 2 to time 5. Thus, if we were to invest, say, $10,500 at
time 2, we would have an accumulated value of 10,500(1.06)3 at time 5.
Lets take another example. How would you explain the following forward rate? The 2-year
forward rate, deferred 3 years is 4% (or the 2-year forward rate, starting in 3 years is 4%). This
means that we could make an investment 3 years from now that would earn 4% per annum over
the next 2 years, i.e., over the period from time 3 to time 5.
On pages 445 and subsequent in the manual, naturally we dont use the official terminology for
forward rates, since the 11th edition was published before this terminology was adopted. Now
that the exam committee has spoken, you should expect to see the new terminology on future
exams.
Very often, you will deal with forward rates that are in effect for only one year (i.e., forward rates
for which the m in the definition of a forward rate is equal to 1). For example, if 5% is the
one-year forward rate deferred 5 years, it means that we could make an investment at time 5 that
would earn 5% over the one-year period running from time 5 to time 6. (Note that this is the
same forward rate described in the third paragraph under Forward Rates on page 445, which
does not use the official terminology.)
You should learn how to determine forward rates from spot rates by reading pages 445-447 and
doing examples 6, 7 and 8 on page 447. Although the official terminology is not used on these
pages, you should not have a problem understanding the concepts.
Keep in mind that you may have to modify questions on forward rates in the ASM manual in
terms of the official terminology. For example, see question 2 on page 451. The question asks
you to Calculate the one-year forward rate for year 2 (i.e., the one-year effective rate during year
2). While this is pretty clear, it would have been worded as follows using the official
terminology: Calculate the one-year forward rate, deferred one year. (or Calculate the one-
year forward rate, starting in one year.).
[5/21/13] Page 465, solution to Example 1. The 2nd sentence should refer to Example 2, not Example 3.
[11/20/12] Page 476, answer choices (A) to (E). The lower limit of the summation in each of the denomi-
nators should be designated by t, not i. Similarly in the solution.
[10/29/14] Page 487. Ignore Section 9n, since effective duration is no longer included in the syllabus.
[8/7/13] Page 527, 6th line. Note that Bermudian is also spelled Bermudan.
[10/29/14] Page 583, solution to Q. 3. The Note should refer to Sections 15a, 15b and 15c, not 6a, 6b
and 6c.
[5/21/13] Page 613, 3rd line of the solution to Example 11, should say: The net premium she pays is
5.78m 4.76n.
[10/29/14] Page 638. Ignore the material under the caption Paylater, since this is no longer included in
the syllabus.
[10/29/14] Pages 685 and subsequent (Practice Exams). Because the topic of investment year allocation
methods is no longer on the syllabus, ignore the following questions in the Practice Exams:
PE #1, Q. 22; PE #2, Q. 20; PE #3, Q. 8; PE #5, Q. 30; PE #6, Q. 23.
[11/20/12] Page 739, last line. The symbol v.03 should be v.03.
[1/21/12] Page 741, solution to Q. 15. The final answer should be - .42, not - .28. The correct answer is
not one of the answer choices.
[4/7/14] Page 763, Q. 16. This question should not have referred to X as the final payment, since there
is still an outstanding loan balance after X is paid. Delete the 3rd and 4th sentences of the question
and replace them by: Let X be the total amount of the first loan payment which is less than
$500. Similarly, the solution on page 771 should not have referred to X as the final payment.
[3/25/12] Page 773, solution to Q. 26. The solution incorrectly uses the notional value in determining the
margin balance. It should have used the initial margin balance of $216,000. Thus, the new
balance after one month is [$216,000 x e0.05/12] - $42,000 = $174,902. The correct answer does
not appear in the answer choices.
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